The Gurung caste is also one of the castes listed by the Government of Nepal as an indigenous tribe in Nepal. The true origin of this caste lies in the area between Kaligandaki and Budhigandaki in the present Gandak region.
According to the legends and documents related to the Gurungs, the cultural development of the Gurung community took place around the present day Mongolia 1400 years ago. Crossing various geographies, passing through the Annapurna Himal of Nepal, passing through the present-day Dolpa, Mugu, Mustang and Manang, moving from Rumjatar of Sankhuwasabha to Madikharka Taplejung of Dhankuta, Panchthar, Ilam, Sikkim, and Sikkim. Is spread out.
It is mentioned in the history that the Gurung caste, who were considered to be honest and straightforward, were forced to lead various forts, thum and forts in the east. During the reign of Kazi Abhiman Singh Basnyat, the stubborn Chambasin Gurung of Solu conquered V.S. It is mentioned in the history that after returning to the Tista river in 1872 BS with his army, he washed his weapons in the river Tista with shields, daggers, khukari and swords. These weapons are still kept in the house of Colonel Khadkasin Gurung, a son of Chambasin, a resident of Siliguri.
Thus, the Gurungs living in the East left their original language and script due to the fact that they were gradually forgetting their original language, creed, culture and religion in order to fulfill the values, titles and responsibilities given by the then ruling classes. Religions, deeds and cultures were abandoned. Due to which the Gurungs living in this area till today do not know how to speak and write their mother tongue.
This nation has its own mother tongue and script. However, as mentioned above, the Gurungs who entered the East in different periods do not speak their original languages for various reasons. After the historic Jana Andolan 2046, in search of their language, religion, deeds, rituals and cultures, the Gurung castes living in the east have also started performing their religion, funeral culture or rituals from birth to death according to Buddhism.
Gurungs are a people who are liberated in heart, supportive of each other, sociable, and often enjoy dancing. Unlike the Gurungs in the west, the custom of singing in Rodhi is not in the east. Ghatu, Sorathi, Ghatuchatu, and Ghondi dances are also not danced. While singing in this way, Devi, Devta, Deurali, Bhanjyang, Kholanala, Bhirpahara present the experiences of their country and region in a more enjoyable way. The story of the grief caused by the hurricane and hurricane, the pain of having to live in a cowshed without food, the shepherds playing the tungna, the shepherds playing the tungna, the shepherds in the folk rhythm, the village shells, the house, the shepherds asking for salt, rice and corn flour.
However, at present, the profession is in crisis due to lack of sheep grazing area and emigration of youths. Although it is a common practice in this caste to marry Mama Chela and Fupu Chela, in recent times, due to education, Poo Puchela and Mamachela do not get married in this region.
The main occupation of this caste is agriculture. Sheep rearing has been a fundamental occupation since time immemorial. Men’s main occupation is sheep rearing and women’s weaving and weaving are the main occupations. Men also make doko, dalo and deli from the choya of Malingo Nigalo. The Radhi Pakhi, Ghumradi and Lukuni Gurung communities hanging in the eastern vernacular originated from the same profession. It is mentioned that the place of origin of the famous Pathibhara Devi of Taplejung district was also discovered by this community while adopting this profession.
According to the above mentioned entrepreneur of the temple, the profession is in crisis due to lack of footsteps, emigration of youths, etc.
This race has its own original dress. In the densely populated Gurung settlements, Aile also wears her original attire. But the Gurungs of the East use it only for good and bad deeds.
The Gurungs follow the Bon religion as their original religion. His total priests perform their rites with pojyu and ghabriddhara. Gurungs like Ghabre, Panjo, Rila, Koke and Telaija, who are considered to be of four castes, except Lama, Lamichhane, Ghale and Ghotane, who used to consider them as four castes, used to use their traditional priests Pojyu and Jhakri Ghabri instead. But after 2046 BS, Buddhism has been the main religion of the Gurung community in the East. However, before that, the Gurungs used to worship Simebhume (Saldo-Naldo) mother, father, river, nature.
During the Baishakh Purnima and Mansir Purnima, it was customary for the family members to sacrifice goats and chickens only at the top of the house. It was then customary to distinguish between the good and the bad of one’s family by looking at the liver of a sacrificed animal or chicken. After 2046 BS, the Gurungs of this region have removed the Lama priest to worship the wind.
After the Lama Gurus flew Jhinsa in their own way, now the Gurungs do not worship the wind. Nowadays, rites from birth to death are performed by lamaddhara and worship is done in the monasteries on special days. Every year, the Lhosar festival is celebrated on the 15th of Poush. There is no mention of four, twelve and sixteen castes in the eastern Gurungs.
On the evening of the 14th of Poush, the day before Lhosar, it is customary to mourn for the peace and tranquility of one’s home. Kodo makes a paste of flour and makes it delicious at night. It is customary for the lamas to give 9 to 8 knots to the men and 7 to 6 knots to the women.
Numbers 9 and 7 have special significance in the Gurung community. As mentioned above, the historical facts confirm that this community entered Nepal from present-day Mongolia. That is why in the Mongolian language, the 9 digits are called ‘go’ and the owner is called ‘rong’. In order to divide the labor between men and women, the fathers, mothers, clans and clans were also divided.
Since men are divided into 9 fathers, 9 clans, 9 clans and women into 7 mothers, it is customary to wear 9sara 8 knots and 7sara 6 knots as a symbol of the same. Scholars are of the opinion that the owner of the same 9 digits became Gurung while using the word ‘Gorong’. This caste is a primitive or classical language which is called ‘Chonkyui’ by the priests Pazyu and Klepri. According to which ‘you’ means up and ‘mu’ means down. Experts say that the word ‘Tumu’ was derived from the word ‘Tumu’, which means sheep farming and agriculture from top to bottom.
Although it is a traditional custom in this community to marry between uncle and disciple, such practice is now being phased out. Earlier, it was customary for uncles and aunts to impose fines on their sons and daughters if they got married elsewhere without consulting each other. Now the practice is being removed. If there is a family for marriage, it is customary for a boy and a girl to get married secretly and for a formal marriage to be arranged by setting a date in the memory of the boy’s side and the girl’s parents.
In case of stolen marriage, the parents of the boy’s side should go to the girl’s house within 7 days with the validity of the stolen road and hand over 100 shells of bread, one khasi, some fee and 1 pathi of liquor. If the girl’s mother and father are happy, it is customary to call their relatives and friends and say badikhana to our daughter. For betrothal, it is customary for the boy’s side and the girl’s side to get engaged by keeping 2 pongs of liquor in the girl’s house to get engaged. If the boy and the girl get together, it is customary to set the date of the wedding by giving gold and silver money to the girl.
On the day of the wedding, the boys take the procession and go to the girl’s house with Naumati Baja, the identity of the Gurungs, the spear, the bursa and the khukuri tied around the waist. In addition, 3 angmile khasi, cell roti as per the demand of the girl’s side and liquor as sagun should be submitted. On the day of the wedding, it is customary for the lamas to make the land and perform the ritual. Here, even in the house of the boy’s side, it is customary to bring the bride in lamas by decorating them according to their clusters.
After the marriage, the bride and groom go to their mother-in-law and father-in-law with bread, alcohol and one khasi for the first vaccination.
According to the National Census of Nepal 2068, there are 283,780 females and 238,861 males in Nepal. There are a total of 522,641 Gurungs in Nepal.
Economics and education
Although the traditional occupations of the Gurung castes in this region are agriculture and sheep rearing, they seem to have moved on to other occupations. Gurungs from the Nepal Police, Armed Police Force, Nepal Army, India and Singapore and the UK are on the way to go abroad for employment, trade and other employment. Due to which they earn money. Gurungs of this region are far ahead in the field of education than in the past.
The last rites of the Gurung castes are performed according to the Lama method. Four days after his death, his brother is cleansed of salt oil. After death, it is customary to bring the site to the forest by Lama method. The dead are often taken to a hill and taken to a public pier for cremation. It is customary for the family of the deceased to burn salt oil for 13 days. At the end of the 13th day, Mama Mawli invites her relatives to a feast. On the last day, it is customary for the Mawlis to put white Tika, Totla and Khada on the nieces and nephews of the Mawals and keep the Panch Bhaladami in the fire. On the 49th day of death, the relatives of the deceased gather again to light the lamp, and in the same way, they also gather for the year and recite the lama and light the lamp in the name of the deceased.