Dhimal Caste is an old tribal Bhumiputra who has been living in Morang, Sunsari and Jhapa in the present Terai region of Eastern Nepal since time immemorial with very close ties with land, water and forest. Despite historical persecution, exclusion and cultural encroachment, the indigenous Dhimals still live in 97 Dhimal villages, mostly within their ancestral hometowns, with their own language (Dhimal language), lifestyle, dress, arts and folk religion / culture. E. According to the 2001 census conducted by the Central Statistics Office, Dhimal has a population of 19,537.
What is “Majhiwarang”?
Etc. From time immemorial, when the Dhimals began to live in one place, they began to run the society under the leadership of a radish chief in Gauntol for their safety and survival in the society. In the traditional society of Dhimal, the organization that has been working since time immemorial is called “Majhi Warang Samiti”. The person or chief who leads the Dhimal community of that county is called Majhi Warang.
This committee used to have five nobles of that time. Among those five nobles were Majhiwarang, Dhamivarang, Hanuwa and Ojha. These pundits used to make social rules and regulations to run the gauntlet. If there was a conflict in the Dhimal village society, if there was a case, when there was no government policy law or before the state laws were made, they would give justice. In ancient times, when there was a large forest, the committee used to play a big role in protecting the forest from wild animals, epidemics, cholera, malaria and maintaining peace and security in the village.
In the traditional society of Dhimal, the organization that has been working since time immemorial is called “Majhi Warang Samiti”. The person or chief who leads the Dhimal community of that county is called Majhi Warang.
The Dhimal society of that time was guided by sorcery and religious matters. From time immemorial, the Dhimals have been practicing Sirjat Puja, Jatri Mela in Dhimal Gauntol as a symbol of social unity. Before the unification of Nepal, the Dhimals were afraid to do bad deeds due to the era of unity, development of social rites and culture, and the era of religious sorcery in the village Dhemalai Dera where they lived.
Prithvinarayan Shah unified Nepal, implemented one language, one policy, one religion rule in the country, then the traditional institution of Adivasi Janajati Dhimal also came under fire. The changing laws of the country have affected the justice being given by the Majhi Warang Committee. The Dhimals gradually lost their ethnic, political and cultural autonomy after the Gorkha kingdom took over their ancestral lands.
However, the Majhi Warang still exists. It was necessary to divide the Majhi Warang Committees in a layered manner in order to bring everyone together. Later, Gauntol Majhi Warang Committee, Area or Regional Majhi Warang Committee and Central Majhi Warang Committee were formed. Currently, these three levels can be seen in Dhimal Gauntol.
Later, Gauntol Majhi Warang Committee, Area or Regional Majhi Warang Committee and Central Majhi Warang Committee were formed. Currently, these three levels can be seen in Dhimal Gauntol.
The state of access to justice
So far, there is not a single lawyer in Dhimal. Dhimals do not seem to be aware of the laws, policies, rules, acts and bills of the state. Due to legal illiteracy, the Bhumiputra Adivasi Dhimals of the Terai of Ekta have recently been forced to become squatters. Even though the state has not given legal recognition to it, the Majhi Warang Committee has been dealing with issues since time immemorial by making laws, policies and rules to run its own type of gauntol or dhema.
The opinion of the leaders
According to Ram Bahadur Dhimal, president of the Dhimal Caste Development Center, Nepal, “the practice of allowing the Dhimals to exercise their right to self-government and self-determination is due to the existence of the Majhiwarang Committee.” Former Secretary General of the Dhimal Caste Development Center, Nepal, Nambarlal Dhimal says, “This traditional organization has been playing a major role in the arts, culture, rituals, traditional and other social sectors within the Dhimal caste.
” According to Ganeshman Dhimal, head of the cultural department and central member of the Dhimal caste, “this organization is important in identifying Dhimal.” Women leader Devi Dhimal says, “The Majhi Warang Committee has made a good impact on the society. It should be financially supported by the state government for its upliftment and development. ”
The Dhimals have built Dhimal villages in every Dhimal village with the religious belief that “there should be peace and security in the village, no one should suffer and no one should suffer.”
Social, cultural status
The Dhimals have built Dhimal villages in every Dhimal village with the religious belief that “there should be peace and security in the village, no one should suffer and no one should suffer.” It is still believed that Dhimals worship in the village because of the belief that if they worship in the village, there will be good harvest, timely rains, cholera in the village, wild animals will not suffer, there will be no famine in the village, there will be peace and security. The Dhimals, in particular, worship gods of their own kind.
They have their own way of life such as building houses, living, weaving machines for the preservation of art and culture, carving patterns in the house, keeping yard, keeping pigs, raising children with oil in the sun. Agriculture is the main occupation. Apart from agriculture, the people of this community have been engaged in leisure activities such as fishing, hunting, plowing, making fishing rods, weaving tan, decorating houses and planting vegetables in the orchards.
Safilal Dhimal, the landlord of Ekataka Terai, had 500 bighas of land. There are also examples of the owner of so much land being straightforward and tender-hearted, not knowing how to turn left and right, and giving it to relatives, friends, sons and relatives every year, when he was alive, he became a normal person in 5-10 bighas of land.
The government should recognize Dhimal’s Majhiwarang Committee to give access to justice to the poor Dhimals as well.
In fact, members of the Dhimal community remained unconscious for a long time. They did not interact with the outside world. Due to lack of education or lack of education, the members of this community could not understand the legal issues and policy issues. Secondly, Dhimals do not have the ability to reason because they often speak Dhimal language and are less proficient in Nepali. Thirdly, the minority Brahmins and Chhetri are in the majority in Dhimal Gauntol.
The traditional institution of the Dhimal caste has been operating without any support from the government. It is alive and well in Dhimal society as it has helped to solve the problems that have arisen at every turn. Otherwise, the traditional institutions of the Dhimals, like those of other indigenous tribes, would have disappeared.
The government should recognize the Majhiwarang Committee of Dhimal to give justice to the incidents in the society in a just manner, to give justice to the villagers in time, to free them from more financial burden, and also to give access to justice to the poor Dhimals.