Prithvinarayan Shah : In our history, it is written that King Jayaprakash Malla of Kantipur sought military assistance from the British troops in India and for the same reason Prithvinarayan Shah attacked the foreign army led by Major Kinlock on the way and freed it from foreign influence. However, Prithvinarayan Shah was helped by Europe with strategic resources.
The British government helped the king of Gorkha by teaching him the importance of discipline and providing him arms through European traders. He won Kirtipur by betraying three times with the help of the same weapon.
The five prime ministers of Lalitpur had invited Prithvinarayan Shah to become king. After Prithvinarayan Shah became the king and the chiefs were about to leave on the way to Kantipur, he killed them there and took away everything. That is, Prithvinarayan Shah’s intention was to wipe out the people there when he came to power, whether they would support him or resist him.
1 .Destroyed 1,000 priceless books
It was because of this heinous act of the Gorkhalis that the Chinese emperor Qianlong (1736-1796) told his successors, “Do not interfere in the affairs of the Gorkhas until it is too much.”After conquering Bhaktapur, Prithvinarayan Shah looted a lot here. According to historian Purushottam Lochan Shrestha, he carried out more looting here than Jung Bahadur had done after suppressing the Lucknow rebellion. His army also dug up and burnt 1,000 invaluable manuscripts.
These included Tantrashastra, Chemistry, Astrology, Ayurveda texts, Shabad Vidyashastra (sound related books) etc.
The Kayapuchins, who came to Nepal to preach Christianity, were proud to burn thousands of manuscripts during their 60 years in Nepal. Shankaracharya, who came from India to preach Hinduism in the Mallaka period, had burnt 700 texts on Buddhism. So what is the difference between Prithvinarayan Shah and foreigners?
After Prithvinarayan Shah’s conquest of the valley, he expelled not only foreign Christians, but also 12 local Christians from Lalitpur, and began to despise Buddhists.
While the tribals of the valley are also Buddhists.
Whoever wins the state, the scriptures are common to all. But the ruler, intoxicated with victory, did not think so. Even after burning so many books, only the remaining books have been kept in the National Archives by building a library in the time of Bir Shamsher. It is important to mention here that the campaign to destroy archeological objects from the state level continued till modern times.
Archaeological goods, idols, etc. are being stolen and exported abroad. Otherwise, the two Gajurs who would not have entered through the main door inside the Taleju temple in Bhaktapur would not have been lost. Otherwise, who had the power to take a crane and steal Bhupatindra Malla’s statue?
The environment of the Industrial Revolution was created in the Malla period, but the fact that it could not be done by Prithvinarayan Shah till today also confirms that the Mallas had developed well-developed maps, which were started by Jayasthiti Malla. Such maps were even praised by the British. Based on the same map, the Gorkhalis came in handy to attack other places.
Similarly, the painting of the Nyatpol temple in Bhaktapur, which has reached the hands of the German citizen Bernhard Colver, is carved on the module scale used in Europe today. At the same time, it shows that such a scale has been used extensively in mapping buildings. This shows how far Nepal’s architectural development has reached.
All traders run away
Let me remind you again that at that time Nepal (Upatyaka) used to print money for Tibet and send it there and that would bring revenue to Nepal. But Prithvinarayan Shah could not continue it, and at the same time increased taxes on trade. Traders trading between India and Tibet were also deported.
And big traders went to other countries to do business. In 1774, there were only two Kashmiri shops left in Nepal dealing with Tibet.Traders who did not follow Prithvinarayan Shah’s laws and rules were deported. Ta-si-lun-poya Tesu Lama (the second Lama after the Dalai Lama) even sent a letter to the King of Nepal saying, “All traders, be they Hindus or Muslims, are afraid of you.
No one is willing to live in your country.”After the conquest of Bhaktapur, the repression increased so much that people could not stay and had to flee. Nowadays, the majority of the valley dwellers in different districts of Nepal have fled to escape the wrath of Prithvinarayan Shah. Even today, the old people say that the king invited them to a party for discussion and those who returned from there were massacred by the army guarding the streets.
After the second attack on Kirtipur failed, there was a strong retaliation when Prithvinarayan Shah attacked Gaukot near Bhaktapur. In that 15-day war, 332 Gurkha soldiers were killed. Later, when they won, they burned the whole village. At that time, Mahindra Singh, who was leading the Chaukot war, had attained Veergati. Prithvinarayan Shah must have committed such a massacre to avenge that.
Before attacking Bhaktapur, Prithvinarayan Shah had set fire to the paddy which was being prepared for importation. And even after the conquest of Bhaktapur, the genocide continued and the surviving men had to flee. There was even a famine due to the lack of men working in agriculture. Here is the fact about Timilakaji who came forward as the middle evidence among the Qazis (ministers) of the then state (Dhaukaji, Dhwankaji, Bhoukaji, Timilakaji).
After the capture of King Ranjit Malla in Bikram Samvat 1826, Prithvinarayan Shah declared that Timila’s movable and immovable property could not be sold, bought, used or even traded. Later, the king took a salute from Timila Qazi and ordered her to leave with 18,000 or 0.72 percent of the national income.
Later, with the help of a mediator, Prithvinarayan Shah begged for forgiveness without any guilt by paying a fine of Rs. 181, i.e. 0.006 percent of the national income. Chakraraj Timila, a resident of Durbarkshetra in Bhaktapur, still has this paper.
The same was done to Timila, who lives in Bhaktapur Tamari Nyatpol West. He was later ordered to leave with a salute of Rs 18,000. He also paid a fine of Rs. 51 with the help of an arbitrator and returned the property saying that he had waived everything else.
That is, he was forced to admit that he had made a mistake without making a mistake and was forced to pay a fine. According to Kirk Patrick, in 1972 (1849 BS), Nepal’s annual income was estimated at 2.5-30 million.
What was the value of that 151 rupees at that time?
Ruler of Cruel character
Therefore, according to the French historian Silvan Levi, these Gorkhalis are rulers of dual character who may come forward as cruel or generous. The British had attacked Nepal out of resentment because of their similar machinations and suspicious activities. In 1814. (France and Britain were then at war in expanding their territorial borders, whose French were defeated.)
Therefore, the French do not write history on the side of the British. Due to this, Nepal had to fight with the East India Company for two years and even lost one third of the territory of Nepal. It was also their fault for losing Nepal’s territory. That is why Silvan Levy said that Gurkhas are outspoken but dishonest people. Too high on cheating.
Let’s take a look at the kingdom of Prithvinarayan Shah, the creator of modern Nepal, Gorkha. According to historian Surya Bikram Gyawali, Gorkha was a very small and economically weak state. It is impossible for the king of such a place to imagine launching a unification campaign. At that time, King Narabhupal Shah of Gorkha asked a Lama monk of Bhutan to help me in my work. I will give you land.
Narabhupal Shah had to attack the neighboring states several times to expand his frontier as his kingdom was too small.
It is written in the book called Preaching by Prithvinarayan Shah that Prithvinarayan Shah had returned to Makawanpur after a quarrel with Sadhudai Digbandha Sen and challenged him to fight with him. On the way back, they crossed the river Rapti and reached Chandragiri mountain for fear of being recognized by the Malla kings.
When he reached there, he asked Bhanu Jaisi and Kulananda Jaisi who came with him – what is Nepal? And they showed that Bhadgaon, that Lalitpur and that Kantipur. Greed was born in him seeing the splendor of this place, the flat land with abundant fruits. At that time he thought that if I could be the king of this valley, how much would it be?
This confirms Prithvinarayan Shah’s vulture vision in a place full of art and skill, palaces, houses, temples, and good economic relations due to its good trade relations with Tibet. At that time the craftsmanship was so high that there were as many houses, as many temples and as many people as there were idols. Baha: Nani, a well-organized settlement developed by mistake, water (dug or stone fountain) required within it, temple / deity for worship, grain, spacious place for drying clothes – all were arranged.
Such urban development is still hailed by the international community as a masterpiece of architecture.The words written in Prithvinarayan Shah’s book of sermons show how beautiful this place was. Prithvinarayan Shah said, “How do you know?” When asked, he said, “Your face is telling.” It is written in the same book.
After that, he asked his antpal (border guard) Ranjit Basnyat, Birbhadra Pathak, Mansingh Rokaha, “I have decided to attack Nepal, what is the idea?” Were asked. At that time, he advised that it was a reasonable idea. Similarly, when Prithvinarayan Shah discussed this with his uncle, he also advised him to attack Nepal, not to unify.
This place was also important for agricultural production. It also proves that Prithvinarayan Shah’s invasion of the valley was not for unification but for economic gain, not for the purpose of uniting fragmented ‘Nepal’.
The French historian Silvan Levy has written a book about Nepal with evidence. According to Silvan Levy, Gurkha soldiers also went to Tibet to attack various monasteries, chanting religious slogans in search of wealth.
But they were forced to make a deal after being badly chased by Chinese troops. It is worth mentioning here that once every five years, the Chinese emperor had to go to pay taxes as an incarnation of Dev Manjushri.
When Prithvinarayan Shah formed the army to expand the border, he could not reach more than 1300 people even when he could recruit as many people as he could. In the first attack on Kirtipur, Shakti Ballabh Sardar used 1,200 troops brought from India.It also shows the status of the Gorkhas.
At that time, the Italian ruler Mezzini had announced in 1871 that he had taken the step of unification with other states, but this has not happened here. Nowhere in Prithvinarayan Shah’s sermon is it mentioned that unification should be done.History is always written by the sword.
Ramayana is written in the name of the winner, the loser Ravana is declared a demon. Ram who sends Sita to the forest is the best of men. Prithvinarayan Shah is therefore called Ward Maharaj Dhiraj. If steps have been taken to unify, then the army of the defeated place should not treat the enemy soldiers in the same way. But Prithvinarayan Shah came out as a very cruel, dictator.
Prithvinarayan Shah’s eyes fell on Belkot after winning Nuwakot. As soon as he found out that the chief was Jayant Rana, he rushed to the spot alone. Upon learning this, the other soldiers were also running after him. But after the death of many of his warriors, he returned empty-handed. But the brave Kalu Pandey defeated Prithvinarayan Shah and defeated Jayant Rana. After that, he tortured Jayant Rana for not doing it.
Jayant’s skin was removed and he was tortured to death. The incident in which Jayant Rana was skinned and killed has succeeded in presenting a picture of Prithvinarayan Shah as a very cruel, dictatorial and autocratic ruler. Maybe that’s why a sword is placed on the statue of Prithvinarayan Shah!
Not integration, border expansion
Prithvinarayan Shah did not unify, he expanded the borders of the state. So in the place where he won, he did not hesitate to inflict torture and inhuman torture. If the search continues, evidence of torture will be found in Kathmandu and various other places. In fact, if unification had taken place, the sentiments of the people there would have been won and the enemy would not have been treated unfairly.
If real unification had taken place, all the tribes of the country would have been given an opportunity to contribute to the task of nation building. But in the army and police, only Brahmins, Chhetris and Shahs and Rana’s have spoken. Khai Gurung, Tamang, Yadav, Tharu given the opportunity?
Historian Silvan Levy has confirmed that Dravya Shah, a descendant of Prithvinarayan Shah, was the first to usurp the state by stabbing and killing all the runners in the race once a year on Vijaya Dashami. Dravya Shah did not organize this race again after he became the king. Instead, he established the tradition of becoming a king from his dynasty.
Where is the history of Other’s victory ?
Nepal is said to have been liberated from foreign (English) influence. But according to historian Nayan Raj Pant, there were wars in five places during the war between the British and Nepal. Nepal had lost three places and won two places. But Bhakti Thapa, Amar Singh Thapa and Bal Bhadra Kunwar were highly respected by the enemy as the commanders of the three defeated battle fronts.
He was later declared a national hero.But the names of the commanders of the other two fronts, where Nepal was victorious, have been erased from history. Are they non-national elements? It also shows how much the rulers here are under the influence of the British.
If we look at the contribution of the Shah dynasty to art, it seems to be zero. They did not build anything new, on the contrary, they were very jealous of the monuments that had been built before. Therefore, he tried to spread the illusion that he had built such monuments by putting his name without addressing them.
For example, we used to read in school that the 22 sections in Balaju were made by Ran Bahadur Shah. But King Jayaprakash Malla had already built 21 stone fountains there. In the philosophy of Newar architecture, doors, windows, etc., are unique. Therefore, there are 55 windows in the palace of Bhaktapur.
An attempt was made to write a false history by saying that Ran Bahadur Shah made one of the 21 sections already made by Jay Prakash Malla.It is only written in history that the Nyatpol temple of Bhaktapur was built by Bhupatindra Malla but it is not written anywhere in the Nyatpol.
During the reign of King Mahendra, the Nyatpol temple was ordered to be renovated by the building department. At that time, he had to put up inscriptions in Khas language and English language saying that it had cost so much. Mahendra’s name was also indicated. Iron bars and doors were also placed there to hurt the essence of the architecture.
(After a long time, the iron bar was removed.) Not only that, the old bricks were cracked and cemented. There is an old technology to prevent water from entering, but it has not been taken care of. The tundal of the temple used to be painted black and white, but during the coronation of King Virendra, it was painted in colorful colors. The 55 windows are still painted black.
From any economic, political, religious, linguistic point of view, Prithvinarayan Shah did not unify Nepal, he only expanded the borders of the state under his expansionist policy. Attempts have been made to cover up his misdeeds by using state unification.
Who killed Prithvi Narayan Shah?
What did Prithvi Narayan Shah do?
Who was the father of Prithvi Narayan Shah?
Why did Prithvi Narayan Shah attack Nuwakot first?